Nephrotic syndrome also known as nephrosis, is a group of systems that indicate kidney damage. These symptoms include:
- Edema: A type of swelling caused by excess fluid trapped in the body. This can happen as a result of insufficient proteins to keep fluid in the blood.
- Proteinuria: An abnormal amount of protein in urine
- Hypoalbuminemia: Low levels of protein in the child’s blood
- High cholesterol: The child’s body overproduces certain types of blood fats due to low levels of protein
Nephrotic syndrome in children can be caused by several diseases, the most common one being minimal change.
Minimal change disease
Minimal change disease is the most common cause of nephritic syndrome in children. Although in minimal change disease there is damage to the glomeruli, the damage is not visible under a regular microscope, only an electron microscope. The exact cause of minimal change disease is unknown, but it is believed to be an immune disorder. Viral infections, allergic reactions, and immunization can all trigger minimal change disease.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)
A condition in which there is scarring on some glomeruli. The cause is unknown in most cases. FSGS is responsible for 1 in 10 cases of nephortic syndrome in children.
Not very common in children, membranous nephritis is a group of disorders in which deposits of antibodies build up in the glomeruli, causing thickening and damage.
A complication of other generalized conditions can also result in nephrotic syndrome. Some of these conditions are diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and certain kinds of cancer such as leukaemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma.
If you suspect your child has nephrotic syndrome, you should see a pediatric urologist. Nephrotic syndrome will be diagnosed by analyzing the child’s medical history, performing a physical exam, blood and urine tests, a kidney ultrasound, and a kidney biopsy.
The most common treatment prescribed for nephrotic syndrome is steroids. Your child will usually be put on a four week course of prednisolone. This medication helps prevent protein from leaking in the child’s urine.
Diuretics increase the volume of urine produced, therefore reducing fluid build-up.
An experienced pediatric urologist will analyze your child’s symptoms and determine if nephrotic syndrome is present. If you are in need of an expert pediatric urologist, Dr. Grace Hyun is a board certified urologist who specializes in pediatric urology. Dr. Grace Hyun offers services in Female Pediatric Urologist New York, Best Female Pediatric Urologist Manhattan, Pediatric Urologist NYC, and Top Pediatric Urologist NYC.